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Important crop production in Thailand
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[Obrazek: thailands-rice-farmers.jpg]

The cultivation of plants in Thailand is diverse and different in each region. We have many important global economic crops such as rice, cassava, sugarcane, pineapples, rubber, durian and orchids etc. Production is distributed in various regions. This is because we have basic factors including land, water and weather suitable for the production of those plants. Farmers are free and satisfied with their long-standing agricultural traditions. In addition, the government has a policy to continuously promote agriculture. And another important thing is that the demand for consumption and markets of agricultural products increase as the world population increases. Therefore, the content of important plant production in Thailand in this chapter will show that What are the important crop production in Thailand at present? Each group or species has varieties and methods or production processes. The students will analyze and compare. To be used as basic information in the study in the next chapters

 2.2 Choosing plant species of farmers

    Choosing crop types of Thai farmers Is determined from the important production factors, namely the land, water and weather in Thailand that are very suitable for the production of many plants Thai farmers have followed their ancestors in their agricultural career for a long time. Until there is a saying that is true and impressive "Farmers are the backbone of the nation." And as the world's population continues to increase, the demand for food from agriculture increases. States and organizations Therefore promoting Systematic improvement of agricultural production development Resulting in the production of many important world-class crops in different regions of Thailand such as rice production in the central region Rubber and fruit trees in the southern region And the eastern region Field crops in the north and northeast, for example, for each group of important characteristics of crop production, which are separated into rice, field crops, perennial plants, fruit trees, flowers, and vegetables. With the following brief details

[Obrazek: rice.jpg]

    2.2.1 Rice fields and rice production

    Paddy field means an area where water can be locked during the cultivation period. Maybe by rain from nature Or by irrigation Therefore can grow rice which is durable and needs waterlogging conditions during the growth of plants well The rice grown may be divided according to the starch characteristics in the rice grains, such as rice and glutinous rice. Or can be divided according to the time of planting into rice rice Is rice that is grown during the normal rainy season of that area And second rice, which means rice that is grown outside the normal growing season But there is irrigation assistance during plant growth Which takes approximately 120-150 days

    The rice varieties used for planting are therefore different. Depending on the type or season of planting of rice in each area And because rice has been the main crop of Thai farmers for a long time Therefore, in each locality, there are local rice varieties that have been selected and used for inheritance for a long time by the farmers themselves. In addition, there are rice varieties maintained by the Rice Research Institute. Department of Agriculture The Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives, for example, varieties of RD, various numbers and names of provinces of rice research centers such as Chainat 60, Suphan Buri 60, or there may be varieties that are improved by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) in the Philippines, including IR varieties, numbers of these improved varieties of farmers. The breed was obtained from the Department of Agricultural Extension of the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives.

[Obrazek: Rice_plantation_in_Thailand.jpg]

   2.2.2 Rai Area and Crop Production

    Farm area means an area with no waterlogging conditions. Field crops often rely only on rainwater for the growth of crops. But sometimes crops can be grown in the fields By planting off-season rice rice (After harvesting or before planting rice) when there is no flooding in the fields The cultivation of each crop is 90-150 days or more (such as cassava and sugarcane, etc.) depending on the type of crops and varieties used. Choosing the type of plants and short-lived varieties (light varieties) allows farmers in some areas to grow crops 2-3 times in a year, which may be planted in the rainy season and in the middle of the rainy season or the dry season.

    The most commonly cultivated crops in Thailand are corn, sorghum, cassava, sugarcane, soybean, green beans, peanuts, cotton, castor, tea and tobacco. For cultivars cultivated in some locations, native varieties may still be used. Since these crops have been planted for a long time But most of the time, farmers now receive advice and support from relevant agencies such as the Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives. Office of the Cane and Sugar, Tobacco Monopoly, Various Universities And private companies that operate seeds and crop products business Therefore there are varieties of varieties improved by many agencies such as the Suwan corn Corn Hybrids from the Department of Agriculture or Private Companies Sorghum varieties, KU peanuts, KKU and Khon Kaen 60-3, cassava varieties, Rayong 3 and KU 50, sugarcane varieties Q and F 124, mungbean varieties Mo 1 and Chainat 60, soybean varieties Chiang Mai 60, cotton varieties Takhak 60 and Si Samrong varieties etc.

    2.2.3 Planting areas and perennials

    Perennial planting area Refers to the area where perennial plants are grown more than 1 year, such as rubber, palm, coconut oil. The area is similar to that of a field crop. And may have steep slopes or more complex mountains For the most part, these areas are humid and rainy all year round. Which is not suitable for growing crops or rice Most rubber plantations are in the southern and eastern regions. The oil palm is grown only in the southern region. For the coconut is very popular in the seaside area. Because perennial plants have a long life Therefore, maintenance and harvesting practices must be continued throughout the year. As for new planting, it is popular to do at the beginning of the rainy season. Which has to be prepared more carefully than the field crops

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